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dc.contributor.advisor El Nur, Ibrahim
dc.contributor.author Milik, Sohair Mourad
dc.creator Milik, Sohair Mourad
dc.date.accessioned 2011-01-23T17:26:56Z
dc.date.available 2011-01-23T17:26:56Z
dc.date.created 2011 Spring
dc.date.issued 2011-01-23T17:26:56Z
dc.identifier.uri http://dar.aucegypt.edu/handle/10526/1527
dc.description.abstract Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a crucial public service issue affecting both environment and health. Waste management is not limited to the collection of waste and its disposal; it includes collection, transportation, sorting and recycling of waste. SWM is highly affected by people culture and their level of awareness. However, the challenges of Solid Waste Management in Egypt has always been, and will continue to be one of the most pressing challenges facing the Egyptian authorities for the coming decades. During the 1990s, Egypt, like many other developing countries, followed the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) that was introduced by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. One of the reform objectives was to liberalize the economy by increasing private sector involvement in operating public projects; i.e. "Privatization ". Based on "Privatization," the government changed its approach in the field of SWM to play the role of the organizer who provides the appropriate environment for economic activities, in addition to its main role in formulating policies. By 2002, the private sector, in particular international companies, became involved in implementing SWM. They started in Alexandria then moved to Cairo and Giza governorates. Hence, the formal international private sector became involved in achieving the Egyptian development objectives in the field of solid waste management. The year 2002 witnessed the shift in SWM system from a provision system orchestrated by the public sector (public authorities) and the private informal sector (garbage collectors) to a system managed by the international private sector. The involvement of the multinational private sector companies in solid waste management is one of the most controversial issues that is often quoted as a main reason for the failure of SWM in Egypt. After eight years of international private sector participation in SWM in Egypt, particularly Cairo, Alexandria and Giza governorates, the situation has deteriorated as admitted by the Minister of State for Environmental Affairs in a report issued in2009. The report estimated that the amount of generated solid waste in Egypt is nearly 75 million tons and the generated municipal waste is about 20 million tons annually. Municipal waste thus represents only 25 per cent of the generated solid waste with daily generation of 55 thousand tons in Egypt. In Greater Cairo, this situation is very critical because of the high population density, and the increased amount of garbage produced as well as the deficiency in the collection process, means of transportation and the recycling systems. As a result of the bad performance of multinational private sector companies in SWM in Egypt during the last decade, the level of street cleanliness deteriorated and the pollution resulting from open burning increased. In addition, the circumstances aggravated the already bad situation. Pig slaughtering, which took place in June 2009 and that is a consequence of misunderstanding and mismanagement of the swine flu crisis, aggravated SWM problems further. Pig slaughtering resulted in the spread of large quantities of food waste in the streets. Unfortunately, the Egyptian government did not offer alternative solutions to garbage collectors who lost their pigs and their income they generate from breeding pigs. For decades, pig breeding has been one of the main components of the recycling process. Not only did the pigs feed on food waste, but they also were a source of income for garbage collectors. With no more pigs raising, garbage collectors disposed, in the streets, of food waste that constitutes 55 per cent of the collected solid waste, refusing to carry the cost of transporting the waste to the dumps. Even though getting rid of food waste by feeding it to pigs is not the ideal solution and is not environmentally and healthy viable, however, upgrading could have been an alternative option for policymakers. These developments increased waste dispersion in the streets, rates of pollution, and the number of lost opportunities from recycling. This can be attributed to the hasty decisions of the government to privatize SWM and slaughter pigs. These decisions are two of the main issues that will be studied in depth in this thesis. Abstract Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a crucial public service issue affecting both environment and health. Waste management is not limited to the collection of waste and its disposal; it includes collection, transportation, sorting and recycling of waste. SWM is highly affected by people culture and their level of awareness. However, the challenges of Solid Waste Management in Egypt has always been, and will continue to be one of the most pressing challenges facing the Egyptian authorities for the coming decades. During the 1990s, Egypt, like many other developing countries, followed the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) that was introduced by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. One of the reform objectives was to liberalize the economy by increasing private sector involvement in operating public projects; i.e. "Privatization ". Based on "Privatization," the government changed its approach in the field of SWM to play the role of the organizer who provides the appropriate environment for economic activities, in addition to its main role in formulating policies. By 2002, the private sector, in particular international companies, became involved in implementing SWM. They started in Alexandria then moved to Cairo and Giza governorates. Hence, the formal international private sector became involved in achieving the Egyptian development objectives in the field of solid waste management. The year 2002 witnessed the shift in SWM system from a provision system orchestrated by the public sector (public authorities) and the private informal sector (garbage collectors) to a system managed by the international private sector. The involvement of the multinational private sector companies in solid waste management is one of the most controversial issues that is often quoted as a main reason for the failure of SWM in Egypt. After eight years of international private sector participation in SWM in Egypt, particularly Cairo, Alexandria and Giza governorates, the situation has deteriorated as admitted by the Minister of State for Environmental Affairs in a report issued in2009. The report estimated that the amount of generated solid waste in Egypt is nearly 75 million tons and the generated municipal waste is about 20 million tons annually. Municipal waste thus represents only 25 per cent of the generated solid waste with daily generation of 55 thousand tons in Egypt. In Greater Cairo, this situation is very critical because of the high population density, and the increased amount of garbage produced as well as the deficiency in the collection process, means of transportation and the recycling systems. As a result of the bad performance of multinational private sector companies in SWM in Egypt during the last decade, the level of street cleanliness deteriorated and the pollution resulting from open burning increased. In addition, the circumstances aggravated the already bad situation. Pig slaughtering, which took place in June 2009 and that is a consequence of misunderstanding and mismanagement of the swine flu crisis, aggravated SWM problems further. Pig slaughtering resulted in the spread of large quantities of food waste in the streets. Unfortunately, the Egyptian government did not offer alternative solutions to garbage collectors who lost their pigs and their income they generate from breeding pigs. For decades, pig breeding has been one of the main components of the recycling process. Not only did the pigs feed on food waste, but they also were a source of income for garbage collectors. With no more pigs raising, garbage collectors disposed, in the streets, of food waste that constitutes 55 per cent of the collected solid waste, refusing to carry the cost of transporting the waste to the dumps. Even though getting rid of food waste by feeding it to pigs is not the ideal solution and is not environmentally and healthy viable, however, upgrading could have been an alternative option for policymakers. These developments increased waste dispersion in the streets, rates of pollution, and the number of lost opportunities from recycling. This can be attributed to the hasty decisions of the government to privatize SWM and slaughter pigs. These decisions are two of the main issues that will be studied in depth in this thesis. en
dc.format.medium theses en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.rights Author retains all rights with regard to copyright. en
dc.subject.lcsh Thesis (M.A.)--American University in Cairo en
dc.title Assessment of solid waste management in Egypt during the last decade in light of the partnership between the Egyptian government and the private sector en
dc.type Text en
dc.subject.discipline Political Science en
dc.rights.access This item is available en
dc.contributor.department American University in Cairo. Dept. of Political Science en


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    This collection includes theses and dissertations authored by American University in Cairo graduate students.

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