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dc.contributor.advisor Siam, Rania Mustafa, Ghada Alaa El-Din
dc.creator Mustafa, Ghada Alaa El-Din 2012-01-29T12:05:47Z 2012-01-29T12:05:47Z 2011 Fall 2012-01-29T12:05:47Z
dc.description.abstract The sea floor is a unique and diverse ecosystem to investigate how geochemical processes affect the diversity of biological life. Red Sea brine pools are water bodies characterized by a unique multitude of extreme conditions, including high temperature, high salinity, and unusual high concentration of heavy metals. We performed a comparative metagenomic analysis of the microbial communities in the sea floor of the Atlantis II (2168 m; 68oC), Discovery Deep (2166 m; 48oC) brine pools and two non-brinesites (1,856 m; 21.93°C and 1,937 m; 31.87°C) in the Red Sea. Each brine core wasvertically dissected into seven distinct subsections. CHN&S profiles showed significant fluctuations in sulfur and nitrogen levels in two of the brine pool subsections. A comprehensive 16S rDNA analysis of about one million 16S rDNA reads, allowed the identification of an exclusive assemblage of microbial communities in the sulfur rich Atlantis II and the nitrogen rich Discovery Deep brine pool subsections when compared to adjacent brine and non-brine sediments. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria,and Deferribacteres were the most abundant bacterial phyla. Interestingly, the S-rich Atlantis II subsection showed distinctive abundance of the recently identified Chloroflexiorder Anaerolineales, Fusobacteria and OP1. Crenarchaeota dominated all the sediment samples with the exception to the S-rich Atlantis II and the N-rich Discovery Deep sample that was dominated by Euryarchaeota. Our study illustrates a distinct stratification of the microbial communities in both the nitrogen rich and the sulfur rich brine subsections. However, the lack of apparent stratification in the remaining layers of the brine and non-brine sediments despite variations in metals and CHN&S profiles implies that sulfur and nitrogen are the major players that dictate the microbial assemblage in the Red Sea. en
dc.description.sponsorship The author would like to acknowledge Dr. Rania Siam, the supervisor of this study for her trust, support and efforts; in addition to the sampling efforts. Dr Ahmed A. Sayed, Research associate professor at AUC, for his efforts in DNA extraction from the sediments; Dr. Adham Ramadan, the chair of the Chemistry department at the AUC for his advice and support in conducting the chemical analysis; Dr Ahmed Moustafa, for his help and advice in the computational analysis. Dr Daniela N Schmidt, Royal Society University Research Fellow, and Dr Crisogono Vasconcelos, Senior Research Scientist, Head & Co-Founder of the Geomicrobiology Laboratory, Geological Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland, for their help and support in the analysis of the Scanning electron microscope. Mr. Hazem Sharaf for his support and help in data analysis and heatmaps' construction and computer assistance; Mr. Rami Wasfi for his help in electron microscope picture development at the AUC facility; Mr. Amged Ouf for his efforts in ordering reagents and lab organization. This work was funded by King Abdullah University for Science and Technology (KAUST). en
dc.format.medium theses en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.rights Author retains all rights with regard to copyright. en
dc.subject Red Sea en
dc.subject Sediments en
dc.subject ICP-OES analysis en
dc.subject Pyrotag sequencing en
dc.subject Brine pools en
dc.subject Scanning electron microscopy en
dc.subject CHN&S profiling en
dc.subject Chemical analysis en
dc.subject Marine metagenomics en
dc.subject.lcsh Thesis (M.S.)--American University in Cairo en
dc.subject.lcsh Biodiversity -- Red Sea -- Egypt.
dc.subject.lcsh Biotechnology -- Red Sea -- Egypt.
dc.subject.lcsh Microbiology -- Red Sea -- Egypt.
dc.subject.lcsh Molecular biology -- Red Sea -- Egypt.
dc.title Unique biodiversity of the Red Sea brine floor revealed by comparative taxonomic analysis of Atlantis II and Discovery Deep brine sediments en
dc.type Text en
dc.subject.discipline Biotechnology en
dc.rights.access This item is restricted forever en
dc.contributor.department American University in Cairo. Dept. of Biology en

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    This collection includes theses and dissertations authored by American University in Cairo graduate students.

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